Joint Disease in Dogs

Many dog parents have faced a diagnosis of joint disease in their canine friend, which often leads to lifelong treatment and management. There are several types of joint disease, including osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and dysplasia. Although these are just a few types of joint disease, they affect many dogs. This article discusses osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and dysplasia to help dog parents obtain a well-rounded understanding of the diseases.

Typical Joint For Reference in Joint Disease in Dogs

Joint Overview Image Courtesy of vetsci.co.uk

Basic anatomy of dog joints:

  • The place where two bones join together is called a joint and most joints are mobile, or designed to move.
  • Joints are full of cartilage, which is a protective layer between the two bones. Cartilage functions to reduce the friction between the two bones, protecting them from rubbing together and breaking.
  • A membrane, called the synovial membrane, covers the bones involved in the joint and secretes fluid. This fluid is called synovial fluid and it functions to lubricate the joint and also reduce friction.
  • Fluid filled sacs, called bursae, are located in the joint to help cushion it.

Common Joint Disease in Dogs

Osteoarthritis:

Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and is caused by degradation of joint cartilage over time. The cartilage production slows down as dogs age, resulting in the loss of the protective layer between the two bones in a joint. This eventually lets the bones to rub against each other, causing pain and inflammation. The bones also lose their shape and are damaged.

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Rheumatoid Arthritis is not as common as osteoarthritis in dogs. It is caused by the dog’s immune system attacking the joints. This also causes a loss of cartilage and usually very painful inflammation.

Joint Dysplasia:

Joints can be formed improperly or incompletely, called dysplasia, which can eventually result in the two bones separating from the joint. Dysplasia in dogs most commonly affects their elbows and hips, and it is believed to be partly caused by genetics.

How to help your dog without medicine:

  • Keep your dog at healthy weight. Their joints are already working hard and extra weight will only make their condition worse. Have a veterinarian evaluate your pet’s weight to see if weight loss is needed. Your dog’s veterinarian will likely be able to help you design a weight loss program.
  • Feed your dog a healthy diet. Your dog’s veterinarian will be able to suggest diet changes, if needed, to help maintain a healthy weight while providing nutrients your dog’s joints need.
  • Make your dog’s environment safe and easy on them. When your dog’s joints deteriorate and they experience pain, using stairs and jumping on/off objects can be difficult. Keep  your dog’s mobility in mind and moving objects like bowls, beds, and toys can be beneficial.
  • Exercise your dog as directed by your dog’s veterinarian. Some joint conditions will benefit from exercise and others are worsened. The veterinarian will know if exercise will help your dog’s joint disease and will likely have some great recommendations.

Medications for joint disease in dogs:

  • Joint supplements provide key nutrients for your dog’s joints. For more information about joint supplements, stay tuned to the VetRxDirect blog because an article will be released soon talking about joint supplements for dogs.
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID’s) are prescription medications for dogs that decrease inflammation and pain. Examples include Rimadyl (Carprofen) Meloxidyl (Meloxicam), Etogesic (Etodolac), Feldene (Piroxicam) Deramaxx (Deracoxib), and Previcox (firocoxib). See our blog post “Important Information on NSAID’s for Pets” for more information about NSAID’s for dogs!
  • Steroids also decrease inflammation and swelling, but to a larger degree than NSAID’s do. With their increased effectiveness, come increased side effects. Usually steroids are given as a last resort or for bad flare ups of joint disease.

Does your dog have any other joint diseases? What other bone and joint supplements or prescription pain relievers have you given your dog? Please share with our pet parent audience by leaving a reply below. Thank you.

 

Meloxidyl: Save on Meloxicam suspensions!

Meloxicam has been widely used over the years to help dogs with arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. Meloxicam is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) which inhibits enzymes that produce inflammation and pain. These enzymes are called COX-1 and COX-2. Meloxicam has been available in generic human tablets and an expensive brand name suspension called Metacam. Now VetRxDirect is carrying a less expensive version of a meloxicam suspension called Meloxidyl.

Meloxidyl is bioequivalent to Metacam Oral NSAID for Dogs

Meloxidyl is now available at VetRxDirect Pet Pharmacy.

Meloxidyl contains 1.5 mg of meloxicam per 1 mL of the suspension. It is more convenient and easy to give your dog than the meloxicam tablets. With the suspension, you can easily place the medication in the pet’s food or directly into their mouth. Meloxidyl will make your dog’s meloxicam suspension much more affordable. If you’d like to save some money on meloxicam, talk to your veterinarian about switching to Meloxidyl suspension.

ProductStrengths AvailableCost
Meloxicam tablets7.5 mg and 15 mgVRD Paw Print
Meloxidyl oral suspension1.5 mg/mLVRD Paw PrintVRD Paw Print
Metacam oral Suspension0.5 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mLVRD Paw PrintVRD Paw PrintVRD Paw Print

VRD Paw PrintIndicates relative pricing, with more paw prints showing greater cost of the product.

For more information on meloxicam and other NSAID’s, see our article titled, “Important Information about NSAID’s for Pets.

What are your thoughts on trying less expensive options for your pet’s medications? Has your pet been prescribed meloxicam before? Would you try Meloxidyl? Leave a reply below.

Important Information on NSAIDs for Pets

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, also known as NSAIDs, are one of the most frequently prescribed pain relievers from veterinarians. With this high frequency of prescribing comes a proportional amount of side effects. This article aims to educate the public about the safe use of NSAIDs in pets: when they’re appropriate, when to avoid using them, and how to watch for dangerous side effects.

What are NSAIDs for pets indicated for and what benefits do they provide:

NSAIDs aren’t commonly used in cats because they cannot clear the drugs from their body very well. They should be avoided, especially in long term use, in cats for this reason. NSAIDs are indicated for two reasons in dogs: osteoarthritis and for pain relief after an operation. They can be used off label for many other reasons including an injury or pain when a veterinarian thinks they would be beneficial. They can benefit dogs by decreasing their pain and improving their quality of life. Let’s face it; no one wants to see their companion in pain and these drugs are proven to help reduce it.

How do NSAIDs for pets decrease inflammation:

All of the NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX enzymes). There are two major COX enzymes and are labeled COX-1 and COX-2. Both of the enzymes are involved in the pathways of inflammation, fever, blood clotting, and pain. However, COX-2 is found in inflamed cells only, and COX-1 is found all throughout the body, including the stomach. By inhibiting these enzymes, NSAIDs decrease the effects that the enzyme would normally have on the body. This will decrease the pain and inflammation associated with certain conditions such as osteoarthritis. Below is a table of all the NSAIDs that are available through VetRxDirect.

Drug

Active Ingredient

Dosage Form

Generic or Brand Name?

VetRxDirect Unit Price

Extra Notes About the Product

RimadylCarprofenCaplets or Chewable TabletsBrand Name$0.79-$1.40Only Chewable Carprofen Product
Norocarp/CarprieveCarprofenCapletsBrand Name$0.47-$0.82
VetprofenCarprofenCapletsBrand Name$0.49-$0.82Can Get 240 Count Bottles
NovoxCarprofenCapletsBrand Name$0.55-$0.97
Carprofen (Putney)CarprofenCapletsGeneric$0.49-$0.78Only Generic Carprofen Product
MetacamMeloxicamOral Suspension (liquid)Brand Name$1.57-$2.50Only Commercial Oral Liquid NSAD For Dogs
MeloxicamMeloxicamTabletsGeneric$0.34-$0.69Only Human Tablets Are Available
PiroxicamPiroxicamCapsulesGeneric$1.09-$2.69VetRxDirect Compounds Suspensions And Multiple Doses That Aren’t Commercially Available
EtogesicEtodolacTabletsBrand Name$1.57-$1.95
EtodolacEtodolacCapsulesGeneric$1.89-$1.56The Only Generic Is the Human Capsules

Deramaxx

DeracoxibChewable TabletsBrand Name$1.59-$3.53COX-2 Selective. No Generic Available
PrevicoxFirocoxibChewable TabletsBrand Name$1.48-$3.75COX-2 Selective. No Generic Available
Onsior (robenacoxib) for CatsOnsiorRobenacoxibTabletsBrand Name$3.33For Use In Cats Only For Upto Three Days.

*The price is listed as per tablet, caplet, chewable tablet, or capsule. It is listed as per mL for the suspensions. Prices between suspension and tablets of the same product are only comparable when accounting for dose. Prices are subject to change and ultimately depend on the dosage form, strength and quantity ordered.

Sometimes old dogs need NSAIDs for Pets.

Courtesy of Roman Boed/Flickr

What is the difference between all the NSAIDs for pets?

The majority of the NSAIDs inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2, but there are a few that only inhibit COX-2. In humans, this selectivity for COX-2 helps prevent some side effects, mainly the risk for stomach bleeding. The two COX-2 selective products that we carry for dogs only have no evidence that shows a decreased risk of the severe side effects. There is also one COX-2 selective NSAID that is indicated for cats only, called Onsior. The NSAIDs carried by VetRxDirect that are sometimes used in cats are carprofen, meloxicam, and piroxicam. NSAID medications should always be used with extreme caution and for very short periods of time in cats.

There are multiple carprofen products available, and their prices can vary. The only one that isn’t comparable to the generic is the Rimadyl Chewable, as there is no chewable generic carprofen available at this time. When picking a product to buy, the generic is an acceptable choice because it will contain the same active ingredient as the brand name product, but will cost less. The liquid formulations of the products may be easier for you to give your pet, but they carry a larger price tag. Some of the NSAIDs work better for certain diseases and have varying side effect profiles. Your veterinarian will know which active ingredient is appropriate for your pet, when choosing between the different products.

What are the risks associated with NSAIDs for pets?

The more frequently reported side effects of NSAIDs include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, and decreased appetite. The use of NSAIDs carry a risk for stomach bleeding, ulcers, perforations (holes), kidney damage, and liver damage. The main problem with NSAID use is the population that they are targeted towards usually has an increased risk for experiencing these side effects from them. If used at the lowest effective doses for short periods of time, they have relatively low risk of these side effects. However, when they are used for osteoarthritis, they are often used for long periods of time which increases the risk of serious side effects. Pets with osteoarthritis are also often older in age, and using an NSAID in elderly animals can increase their risk for serious side effects. When dogs and cats are dehydrated they have an increased risk for kidney damage when using an NSAID.

How to use an NSAID for pets safely in dogs and cats:

Using an NSAID safely in your pet requires a good relationship with your veterinarian. You know your animal best and can tell if they have had any recent changes in health. Things that you need to watch for when your pet takes an NSAID are black tarry stools, dark urine, bloody vomit, and depression. If your pet has any of those symptoms, you need to call your vet right away. Giving an NSAID with their meal can help reduce the risk for stomach upset and irritation.You should also make sure they are well hydrated because of the risk for kidney damage. Educating yourself about your pet’s NSAID medication can reduce the life threatening risk that they carry and help keep them healthy!

Has your pet taken a NSAID before? Which one did your veterinarian prescribe and did your pet experience any side effects?

Please ask any remaining questions in the ‘Leave a Reply’ section of this post, or on the product’s ‘Question and Answer’ tab.

References:

  • United States. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. Canine NSAIDs- What Dog Owners Should Know. By Carmela Stamper. FDA, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.
  • Plumb, D. Etodolac. Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook 7th ed. Pharma Vet Inc. Stockholm, WI. 2011.